The Political and Religious History of Tibet was written by Fazun, a Buddhist monk and researcher of modern times (English translation by Yang Qu). The author was the deputy dean of the Chinese-Tibetan Buddhist Teaching College and this book was one of his teaching materials, which was written based on the Tibetan historical data – mainly, The Blue Annals. The book was first published by the Chongqing Chinese-Tibetan Buddhist Teaching College on November 1941. The book consists of four chapters. The first chapter defines the close relationship between the politics and religion in Tibet and used the year when the Gelugpa School was founded as the boundary between the ancient times and modern times of Tibet. The second chapter has six sections which respectively tell some stories of Tibet before the introduction of Buddhism, which ranges from the period of Srongtsen Gampo to the period of Langdarma, and the spread and suppression of Buddhism in the history of Tibet. There are also detailed descriptions regarding the development, the division of different schools, the spread of various doctrines and their origins and evolutions of Tibetan Buddhism afterwards. The third chapter is about modern history, which mainly describes the history of Gelugpa School and the biographies of Master Tsongkhapa and his apprentices. There are also some notes concerning the doctrine of Gelugpa School and the introduction of other schools. The fourth chapter introduces the politics of Tibet after Tsongkhapa, and a general introduction of the system of Dalai and Panchen. The author had offered us a detailed description of the course of change and development and the doctrines of different schools of Tibetan Buddhism with his profound understanding of Buddhism, making it a book of great reference values. The copy in later times was printed in six volumes.
西藏民族政教史 The Political and Religious History of Tibet
First published by Chungking Han-Tibetan Buddhist Teaching College on November 1941.
Text entry, translation: Yang Qu
卷一 Volume 1
第一章 绪论 Chapter 1 Introduction
The Tibetan history mainly records the rise and fall of religions, and the tales of religion founders and promoters. Even the political history is closely correlated with religion, without which the political records become valueless. Therefore, the Tibetan historical records are nothing but religious evolution. There are two primary religions in Tibet: the first is Primitive Theism called Beng-bo, which comes down until now with its own believers; the second is Buddhism, which was introduced to China from India in the early Tang dynasty. In the early years of Emperor Wuzong’s reign, the Buddhism was devastated and did not come to alive until Song Dynasty. Therefore, in the Tibetan history, the Buddhism before Emperor Wuzong’s reign is called Old Buddhism, also referred to as Xian-Hong Period; while the reborn Buddhism is called New Buddhism, also referred to as Hou-Hong Period.
第二章 古代史 Chapter 2 Ancient Buddhism History
第一节 佛教未输入前 Section 1 Before the introduction of Buddhism
According to the Tibetan historical records, the Tibetan were the offsprings of monkey and Rakshasa and the initial monkey was transformed from Avalokitesvara. However, Buton Buddhism pointed out that during the wartime between Jia-Can and twelve kingdoms, a king named Rubartee led 1000 soldiers to disguise themselves by wearing women clothes and escape to the snow mountains, thus becoming the forefathers of the Tibetans. Therefore, the Tibetans were originated from India, which was cited in the annals of history.
During Totoriniantsen times, 5 generations before Srongtsen Gampo’s reign, five Indian monks were hired to be the state preceptors. It is rumored that when this king was 60 years old, there were four treasures falling down from the sky. However, the populace at that time had no idea what was that. After consulting with the Indian monks, they came to realize that the four treasures were: clasped lotus hands, small dagoba, a perl engraved with “an-ma-ne-pa-hou”, Majestic King of the Treasure. It is also said that it was not the four treasures that had fallen down from the sky, but a box which contained Karandavyuha Sutra, Confession Sutra, Ten Virtues Sutra, Twelve Nidanas and gold pagoda. Since nobody was able to understand these sacred books, they were honored as treasures from the sky and thus were well preserved. It is said that the four treasures fell down along with a sound saying in the air: “You will not know about this until five generations later.” Therefore, these Buddhism-related stuff and books were called as “Nian-po-sang-wa”, which were enshrined and worshiped in Yungbulakang Palace by Totoriniantsen.
第二节 佛教前弘期 Section 2 Xian-Hong Period
松赞干布时期 Srongtsen Gampo Times
Before Srongtsen Gampo times, the Tibetan kings ruled a small region. It was Srongtsen Gampo who expanded the Tibetan territory and developed Tibet a big power in Southwest China at that time. According to the New Book of Tang, Tibet covers an area of over 10 thousand li, neighboring Song-mao-xi in the east, Brahman in the south, Sizhen in the west, and Tu-jue in the north, thus reaching an unprecedented scale ever since Han and Wei Dynasty. It is said that there was no writing system in Tibet before Srongtsen Gampo times and people communicated with each other by means of speaking Tibetan language or exchanging tokens. After Srongtsen Gampo conquered other tribes, he established a large-scale kingdom, which should deal with the neighboring countries, govern its populace, promulgate its laws and regulations etc. Srongtsen Gampo felt that a writing system was emergently in need, so he sent Tun-mi to learn verbal characters from India. Tun-mi firstly followed South Indian Li-jin Brahman and learnt to write various characters. Later he followed Temmei Lion to learn Sheng-Ming and other theories. After that he invented Tibetan writing and pronunciation systems by imitating Sanskrit. Likewise, there was no laws or regulations in Tibet to regulate the populace behaviors at the very beginning. During Srongtsen Gampo’s reign, he made laws according to the Buddhism’s 10 commandments, namely gang fighters were punished; murderers paid with their life; thieves were charged an eightfold fine; adulterers were cut off limbs and exiled; liers were cut off their tongues. Besides, Srongtsen Gampo sent people to bring back the She-Xin-Zhab-Tan’s 11-faced Avalokitesvara from Ceylon, and He-Li-Zhan-Tan’s Avalokitesvara from between India and Nepal for worship. Srongtsen Gampo first married Nepal princess, who brought Aksobhya figure, Maitreya figure, and Tara figure etc. Later he married Tang Wen Cheng princess, who introduced Sakya figure. Also, Srongtsen Gampo asked Nepal sculptors to make an Avalokitesvara statue (now placed in the Northern Palace of Zhaosi Temple) as per his own figure. Moreover, in order to enshrine all sacred statues, Nepal princess built the Jokhang Monastery; Wen Cheng princess built the Re-mo-jia Temple; and Srongtsen Gampo built 12 monasteries including Jia-cha around Lhasa for people to worship. A large amount of sacred statues were enshrined in these temples and monasteries, such as Sakya, Maitreya, Avalokitesvara, Tara, Frowns Buddha, Enlighten Buddha, Sound Buddha, Horse Head Vajra, Amrita Buddha etc. In addition, a lot of ashrams dedicated to practicing the Buddhism doctrine were constructed. It is said that many people became enlightened as a result of practicing the Buddhism doctrine. At that time, there were many translators of Buddhist sutras including Indian Gu-Sa-Re, Xiang-Jia-Re Brahman, Nepal Shi-Luo-Man-Shu, Chinese Da-Tian-Shou Monk, and Tibetan Tun-Mi, Da-Mo-Kuo-Xia, La-Long Vajra etc. From then on, the Tibetans began to promote Buddhism, build temples and monasteries, create words, translate Buddhist sutras, make laws, and educate the populace. Therefore, in Tibetan historical records, Srongtsen Gampo is praised as the Goddess of Mercy, who incarnated herself as the king and bring benefits and welfares to the Tibetans.
墀松得赞时期 Chi-song-de-tsen Times
King Chi-de once sent his minister Sang-xi to mainland China to learn Buddha dharma. When Sang-xi finished learning and planned to return to Tibet, Chi-de had been dead and the people who opposed Buddhism got power again. A saint imparted Sang-xi with Diamond Sutra, Ten Stages Sutra, Straw Sutra, and told him to wait for the right time to invite Indian Xin-Da-Re-Zhi to promote Buddhism dharma in Tibet. When Sang-xi returned to Tibet with more than one thousand volumes of Chinese Buddhist sutras, he happened to encounter the disaster. As a result, he had no idea but to hide these sutras behind the rock caves of Qin-pu before returning to Lhasa.
Later, when King Chi-song-de-tsen read the historical records of former kings, he realized that his forefathers were once dedicated to promote the Buddhism. As a result, he became interested in Buddhism and discussed with some ministers about how to rejuvenate the Buddhism. Sang-xi thought it was the right time, so he got the Chinese Buddhist sutras out, presented them to the king, and gave a brief introduction to these sutras. The king was delighted to hear that, so he asked Sang-xi to translate these sutras together with Chinese Mei-Mo-Guo, Kasmira Ananda. However, the king’s mother’s brother strongly opposed this. He blazed Sang-xi for being meddlesome, so he demoted Sang-xi to Mang-yu. The history records: in order to protect Sang-xi, the Buddhism believers sent him to Mang-yu to seek asylum. In Dingwei year, all the discipline executing monks were invited to Tibet from India and Master Jing-Ming was respected as a teacher, thus starting initiating the Tibetans into monkshood. The first 7 persons were Wei-Bao-Hu, Zhi-Wang-Hu, Bao-Wang-Hu, Shan-Shi-Hu, Bian-Zhao-Hu, Long-Wang-Hu, Tian-Wang-Hu, who were called as Sad mi drug. Later, over 300 people from both upper and lower classes were initiated into monkshood, from whom outstanding ones were selected to study Sanscrit, so as to cultivate sutras translation talents. Meanwhile, dedicated ashrams were built in Yer-pa, Qin-pu, which enables a lot of followers to acquire remarkable achievements. To prevent the conflicts between the religious sects, the Tibetan king forbid translating sutras of other religions. At that time, Vijnaptimātratā School was quite complete and mature. The primary promoters were great virtues of Madhyamika School. For instance, Jing-Ming, Lian-Hua-Jie were founders of Yogaacaara School; Lian-Hua-Sheng, Wu-Gou-You, Fo-Mi were also followers of Madhyamika School. In the last years of Chi-song-de-tsen’s reign, after he put down the disputes and conflicts, he made public proclamation: the populace were only allowed to follow Nagarjuna’s Madhyamika views and practice ten laws and six paramitas while Dun-Men practice were prohibited. In short, during king Chi-song-de-tsen’s reign, the Tibetans tended to be monks; Sangha system was established; and the Buddhism sutras were widely translated. It was not until then that a large-scale Buddhism was established. Later, this period of time was highly evaluated by Attisha, saying: the Buddhism became so prosperous that it even surpassed the Indian Buddhism.
墀惹巴仅时期 Chi-re-pa-jin Times
After Chi-song-de-tsen died, Munytsenpu and Mudytsenpu succeeded to the throne successively, undertaking their predecessor’s career to promote the Buddhism dharma. Especially during Munytsenpu times, he built the Diamond Realm Temple. Besides, he invited Wu-Gou-You and Bian-Zhao-Hu to complete translating the Buddhism sutras inherited from his father and brother. Therefore, the Tripitaka classics were well prepared.
During Chi-re-pa-jin’s reign, he firmly believed in Triratna, shielding and suataining Ten Virtues System. He found that there were a lot of incomprehensible words in the translated sutras; meanwhile, a lot of words translated from mainland China, the Western Regions and India were inconsistent, making it rather difficult to study these sutras. Therefore, he invited the great Indian virtues, such as Sheng-You, Tian-Wang-Bodhi, Jie-Wang-Bodhi, Shi-Jie, Pu-Ti-You, and Tibetan translators, such as Bao-Hu, Fa-Xing-Jie, Zhi-Jun, Sheng-Hu, Miao-Ji-Xiang-Kai, Bao-Wang-Hu, to re-collate the translated sutras according to the teachings of Mahayana and Hinayana and Sheng-Ming theories. He hoped that the doctrines and words would be compatible with each other, thus facilitating the learning of these sutras. Besides, all proper nouns in Mahayana and Hinayana were re-examined and collected in a handbook as a reference for the translators. Also, it was indicated that when creating new words, it is required to specify the reasons in detail. Only when the new words were reported to the translation school, the sermon school, and approved by the Tibetan king, could these words be included in the handbook. The Esoteric Buddhism sutras, especially the Supreme Yoga, were not allowed to be translated without Tibetan king’s approval. Moreover, it was required that all the translated Tripitaka sutras should be distinguished from each other in terms of acknowledgement speech. All Vinaya were attached with “respect all wisdom”; all Suttas with “respect all Buddhas”; and all Abhidhamma with “respect Man-Zhu-Shi-Wai-Li-Tong-Zi”. In this way, upon the readers seeing the acknowledgement speech, they come to know what the content is. As for commandments, only Sarvastivada was allowed to be translated and the other was prohibited in order to avoid conflicts or disputes. Chi-re-pa-jin was a loyal believer of the Buddhism dharma, so he ordered that one monk is supported by seven common households, so as to enable the monks to be dedicated to practice the Buddhism doctrines without diverting their attention to other things. During each dharma assembly, the king would put his kerchief on the ground, invite the monks to walk across the kerchief, and then wear it again. Besides, he also consult the eminent monks about the state affairs; the administrative system were set according to the Suttas; even the commonly used weights and measures were created in accordance with Indian ones. All the temples and monasteries were well renovated. Also, a new Zha-Xi-Ge-Pei Temple was constructed in order to enshrine Triratna, pursue ten virtues, and educate the populace. People who treated Triratna disrespectfully would be severely punished: anyone scolding monks would be sliced off his tongue; anyone maliciously pointing at monks would be cut off his finger; anyone scowling at monks would be scooped out his eyes. By doing this, he showed great respect to Triratna, but the cruel punishment would definitely give rise to some jealousy and disgust. That was one of the reasons for Langdarma destroying the Buddhism later. During the reign of Chi-re-pa-jin, another Tibetan king, he went in for promoting the Buddhism in a big way, took the lead to worship the Buddhism, vigorously supported constructing Wu-Xiang-Duo Temple, and promulgated laws to order seven households to support one monk. But the powerful ministers killed Chi-re-pa-jin’s officials one by one, made Chi-re-pa-jin drunk and strangled him to death, and put Chi-re-pa-jin’s brother Langdarma to the throne. During the 5 years of Langdarma’s reign, he energetically destroyed the Buddhism, as a result, the Buddha figures were buried; the sutras were burnt; the great Buddhism masters escaped to other places; the monks were forced to return home; the temples were destroyed, thus the Buddhism in Tibet almost went to destruction. The historians called the period of 200 years from Srongtsen Gampo to Langdarma as Xian-Hong period in the development history of Tibetan Buddhism. Langdarma’s persecution of Buddhism marks the end of Xian-Hong period. The Exoteric Buddhism suffered a heavy blow while the Esoteric Buddhism was passed down due to its secrecy.
The main characters of Xian-Hong period is: the great sutra translators from India primarily belonged to the Madhyamika School, holding the right views of this school, namely, all things have no their own nature. However, their existence undoubtedly has a reason. That is to say, all things come into being on the basis of a certain condition, without which they would not exist. In such a way to explain and observe the universe, the Madhyamika School aimed to point out that there is comeuppance for everything in the universe and that liberation and Bodhi were achieved based on a certain condition. This is the right view of Madhyamika School, namely, “all things have no self nature, and all events have its inevitable cause”. They firmly believe that this constitutes the principles of all worldly things, so they hold the belief that the followers should practice the doctrines in accordance with this principle, namely strictly observe the precepts, achieve calmness according to the precepts, and get wisdom from calmness. The speeches and behaviors that conform to Madhyamika right views and the threefold training of precepts, calmness, wisdom, are exactly ten laws and six paramitas. Thereout, we can see that, as for the Hinayana followers, their achievements are determined by whether they have completed four stages of enlightenment; while as for the Mahayana followers, their achievements are determined by whether they have lived through the three incalculable eons, accumulated completeness, well-being, virtue, wisdom, and gained unsurpassed Enlightenment. This is the view of Exoteric Buddhism. In terms of Esoteric Buddhism, both Fo-Mi’s Kriya tantra, Yukube tantra and Fa-Chen’s Yoga tantra conformed to the right views of Madhyamika School, which advocated that Buddhism Dharma should be imparted and empowered on the basis of maintaining bodhimind and that Samaya Precept should be strictly observed. Advanced studies included Zeng-Shang-Ding study and Zeng-Shang-Hui study, from which various reasons for worldly things were obtained. For example, Wu-Gou-You’s supreme Yoga Dharma, namely the currently prevailing old Buddhism school, divided the Buddhism dharma into 9 stages: the Sravakayana, the Mahayana, the Bodhisattvayana belong to the Exoteric Buddhism and were proposed by Incarnate Buddha; Kriya tantra, Yukube tantra, Yoga tantra belong to the Esoteric Buddhism and were proposed by Samboghakaya Buddha; Great Yoga tantra, a-nou yoga tantra, a-di-yoga tantra belong to the supreme stages and were proposed by Dharmakaya Buddha. This school indicated that they passed down the dharma of the final three, especially focusing on the a-di-yoga tantra, namely the currently prevailing great completeness, which advocates that the enlightment, emptiness and awareness of all living creatures is exactly the great completeness. That means the all dharma of life and death is included in enlightment, emptiness and awareness. Such a mind has no origin, nor it will die out, but has all the satisfactory functions. By upholding such a view, the followers get far away from all good and evil, gradually eliminate all unknown misconception, and finally obtain the supreme dharmadhatu to stay away from all conceptual theories. That was the final achievement of practicing this doctrine.
Vol. 2 of Tibetan Political & Religious History
Compiled by Ven Fazun
Part 3 Anti-Buddhist Persecution
As stated above, Khri ral-pa can firmly believed that Buddhism regime should be owned by all monks, which aroused powerful ministers’ jealousy. The decrees were so harsh that the public had a strong aversion to them. Powerful ministers like Ba-jia-duo-re and Jue-re-lei-zha intended to kill the King of Tibet and destroyed the legal system. However, due to the presence of Prince lha sras gtsang ma and the minister Ji-xiang-gong-de, such a plan was not successfully implemented. As a result, they decided to get rid of lha sras gtsang ma and Ji-xiang-gong-de first. Ba-jia and other intriguers bribed the wizards and ordered them to preach that disasters would befall the Tibetan King and the country if lha sras gtsang ma resides in Lhasa for a long time. Thus, lha sras gtsang ma was deported to Zhuomo. Ji-xiang-gong-de was framed to have a private relationship with the Princess and was sentenced to death; the Princess also hanged herself.
In the tenth year of Emperor Wenzong, after the King of Tibet got drunk, Ba-jia and his followers seized the chance to murder him. The supplies for all temples that translated Buddhist scriptures were suspended immediately, and all masters became destitute and homeless. Ba-jia and his followers assisted Glang Dar Ma in ascending to the throne and Ba-jia-duo-re himself served as the prime minister. Glang Dar Ma was innately cruel and disgusted Saddhamma. He killed a sea of monks and was addicted to alcohol, leading to a severe turmoil around the country. In the first year of Emperor Wuzong, droughts and floods occurred and people suffered from famine; thieves emerged everywhere and epidemic diseases broke out and prevailed. Glang Dar Ma then summoned common people and told them that Princess Wencheng was actually a Yaksi and that Sakyamuni was a Carendra. This bad luck spread to Sumeru Peak on which the Heavens were fighting Asura and caused the Heavens to be defeated. Later, it went to Udayana and Magadha, and brought misfortune to China as well as Tibetan. Today, they should be exterminated to appease people. At that time, many Buddhist masters fled the country in advance and survived; few Buddhists did not run away and was thus killed. Glang Dar Ma ordered the monks or nuns to wear ordinary clothes and resume secular life. Those who did not obey the rules were mostly slaughtered. The Buddhist scriptures were buried, burned or thrown into the river. Jokhang Temple, Rawa-mo-che Temple, Sakyamuni Buddha and Mitukpa Buddha were destroyed and buried under the seat. It was said that the man who destroyed Vajrapani statues vomited blood and died. So they dared not to further ruin it but just closed the doors. Samye was also sealed up and other temples were mostly turned to ash. At that time, Gtsang-rab-gsal, G.yo dge ‘byung and Dmar shākya mu ni were cultivating themselves in Chu-bo-ri. They saw Buddhist monks wear robes, hold bows and arrows in their hands and hunt animals together with their hunting dogs. After knowing the anti-Buddhism persecution occurring in Lhasa, they felt restless and hurried to fetch the scriptures they had collected. They then went to the rear Tibet and fled to Xinjiang the next day. Later, they continued with their journey from Xinjiang to Malong (it belonged to Qinghai and Tibetans called it Hsi-k’ang collectively) in Hsi-k’ang and focused on their cultivation there. After that, Sheng-cheng and Shi-zi-chuang also carried a variety of scriptures and fled to Hsi-k’ang.
At that time, lha lung Dpal-gyirdo-rje was having a practice in Yerba cave. One day, he heard that Goddess Lakshmi enlightened him, “you’re now the only Buddhist master in Tibet. You must have known that the doomsday of the King of Tibet is coming”. The next morning, he left his mediation state and asked his followers about it. Only at that time did he know that the King of Tibet was persecuting Buddhism. So sad was he that he decided to do something. He painted his white horse into a black one with charcoal and masked his face with lampblack. Then, he put on a coat which was white inside and black outside as well as a black hat, placed sharp arrows into her sleeves and rushed to Lhasa. At that moment, the King of Tibet was reviewing the Lhasa inscriptions. lha lung pretended to prostrate himself in worship and discharged many arrows from the bow, which hit the chest of the King and killed him. Dpal-gyirdo-rje hurriedly crossed the river on horseback, which then returned to its normal color—white. He arrived at the cave, took out the scriptures and headed for Hsi-k’ang. At that time, many ministers in Lhasa heard of the assassination and immediately send troops to chase him. Ding-xian and Bao-sheng were murdered in this process, and the holy religion in Tibet was exterminated.
当时藏王的次妃有孕要生了，大妃嫉妒她，于是用衣缠身，也扬言自己有孕，次妃生子，深恐为人谋害，于是彻夜燃烛以守护之，于是将孩子取名为光护，大妃买了一个贫苦人家的婴儿，说是自己的孩子，取名母坚。（有书作母依）两位王子长大一些后，掌管佛法的大臣对其详细陈述了过去宏法及灭法的经过，王子信心大增，于是命令将各个寺门开启，释迦佛像等安置原位，并设长期供养。后两位王子成人，西藏政权开始分裂，母坚占领布茹，光护占领云茹，互相争斗。光护之子曰吉祥轮。轮有两个儿子，长子叫吉祥积khri bkra-sis brtsegs dpal，继承王位后被母坚所逼逃往拉朶，次子叫日怙，俘虏了布让并筑宫自立。吉祥积有三子，分别叫跋得、喔得、吉得，日怙有三子分别叫跋得、日巴滚、镇芒宇。日札喜得滚继任布让名叫得尊滚。守漾墉得尊滚有二子，名叫阔惹，后来出家，随即迎接阿底峡进藏，称作智光大师。松内继承父位。
At that time, a concubine of the King was going to give birth to a child. The Princess nursed jealousy against her, so she told others that she was also pregnant. The concubine gave birth to a son. She feared that her son might be murdered by others and guarded him all the night with lighting candles filled in the room. She even named her son Guang-hu. The Princess bought a son from a poor family and claimed him as her own child, whose name was Mu-jian (also called Mu-yi in some books). After the two princes grew a bit older, the ministers in charge of Buddha dharma detailed the history of promoting and exterminating Buddhism. The princes gained more confidence and ordered the temples to reopen, place Sakyamuni Buddha to its original position and provide long-term support. After they grew up, Tibetan regime began to split: Mu-jian and Giang-hu occupied Buru and Yunru respectively and fought each other. The son of Guang-hu was named Ji-xiang-lun, who had two sons: the elder one was Khri bkra-sis brtsegs dpal and the younger one was Ri-hu. Khri bkra-sis brtsegs dpal ascended to the throne and then fled to Laduo under the threat of Mu-jian. Ri-hu captured Bu-rang and built a palace to claim himself as the King. Khri bkra-sis brtsegs dpal had three sons: Ba-de, Wo-de and Ji-de; Ri-hu also had three sons:Ba-de, Ri-ba-gun and Zhen-mang-yu. Ri-zha-xi-de-gun later served as Bu-rang and was named De-zun-gun. Shou-yang-yong-de-zun-gun had two sons. One of them was named Kuo-re, who then became a monk. After that, A-di-xia entered Tibet and was called Ven Zhiguang. Song-nei inherited his father’s position.
Attachment: Statistical Table of Kings of Tibet
Mu-jian became increasingly powerful, so he expelled Khri bkra-sis brtsegs dpal and Ri-hu. Hsi-k’ang and Tibet mostly belonged to Mu-jian. He passed on his power to Chi-de-gun-ning. Gun-ning had two sons; the elder one Ri-ba-gun and the younger one Ri-hu. Ri-hu’s son was named Ni-wo-ba-gun, whose descendants lived in Longxue, Penyu and Duokang. Chi-ri-ba-gun had two sons: the elder one De-bo and the younger one Duo-jie-ba. Bu-ba-jin and Zha-ba were De-bo’s descendants. Duo-jie-ba had a son called Chi-wang-qu-zan, whose son was Ye-see rgyal-mtshan. Ye-see rgyal-mtshan had a son called O-da-chi-ba. Chi-ba had four sons: A-luo-re, Ge-long, La-ma and Bodhi-re-luo. A-luo-re’s descendants included Chong-bo-wa, Jiang-jue-ba, La-lang-ba and Nie-tang-ba. Lama had no sons. Ge-long’s descendants included Bei-yi-ba and Wen-duo-meng-ka-ba. Bodhi’s descendants included Nv-rong-ba and Zhi-gang-ba. Their blood was inherited till today.
Attachment: Statistical Table of Kings of Tibet
After anti-Buddhist persecution, no one in Tibet could expound Buddhist scriptures and some people even forged mantras. However, Buddhist scriptures previously translated by Re-ba-jin was well preserved, so it took a short time for Buddhism to re-flourish and carry forward in Tibet.
Part 4 Booming Period of Buddhist
Since Glang Dar Ma exterminated Buddhism, no monks could be found in Tibet. Although Guang-hu and Ji-xiang-lun advocated to revive Buddhism, only those temples who were sealed up were allowed to open. One or two monks who seemed not to be so devout were appointed to clean the temple and support the Buddha in morning and evening. Buddhists were also allowed to cultivate themselves freely. Buddhist scriptures were formally preached when Ye-see rgyal-mtshan and O-da-chi-ba wielded power, probably in late Tang and early Song.
As mentioned above, Gtsang-rab-gsal, G.yo dge ‘byung and Dmar shākya mu ni had fled to Jingangya Cave in Malong to cultivate themselves during the persecution. One day, a cowboy saw them and told it to his countrymen. One of the admirers had good roots in Dharma and really wanted to become a monk. So, he took them as his teachers and became a monk to accept shramanera percepts. His religious name was Dge ba rab gsal. As he was so wise and mastered all scriptures, he was named Dgongs pa rab gsal, which meant the brightest mood. The booming of Buddhism largely relied on him, he was also called La-qin, an equivalent of “master”. La-qin received the commandments when he was twenty years old. His teachers said that commandments shall be received at least by five people at the same time. La-qin heard that Dpal-gyirdo-rje and other two monks were living in seclusion in Langtang, so he went there to visit them. After meeting with Dpal-gyirdo-rje, he explained his purpose of this visit. Dpal-gyirdo-rje rejected him and said that “I have killed the King of Tibet and violated the law, so I am not eligible to receive the commandments”. Later, La-qin met two Han monks around Xining and invited them to come to Hsi-k’ang. After arriving there, he requested his three teachers to preside over the ritual and received the commandments.
There was a story about why La-qin became a monk: One day after 60 years of Glang Dar Maanti-Buddhist persecution, a follower of Bengbosm headed for Nangsa Temple and saw paintings of people disseminating and listening to the Dharma on the walls. He then asked an old woman, who told him that these people were monks. Due to his past good roots, he became confident immediately upon hearing this and went on asking her, “Are there monks or nuns now?” The old woman answered, “When I was young, Glang Dar Ma ordered monks to resume secular life. They were either killed or exiled. Therefore, there are no monks in Tibet now. I only hear about that Qu-qiong-ri, Ye-pa and some other people fled to Hsi-k’ang, where there are a lot of monks now.” After hearing this, he headed for Hsi-k’ang at once despite all the hardship and difficulties. On his way there, he happened to meet Dpal-gyirdo-rje, so he sincerely requested to become a monk. Later, he met Gtsang-rab-gsal etc, who finally helped him to realize his dream of becoming a monk.
After La-qin received the commandments, he began to take Master Lang-rong-shi-zi-cheng as his teacher and learn commandments and etiquettes from him. Shi-zi-cheng imparted all the Vinaya rules and sutras treatise on La-qin, and told him, “I am too old now. You should make up your mind to carry forward the teachings of Buddha.” Later, La-qin went to Lazebidi Temple and had close contact with Master Sheng-cheng, who had fled to Hsi-k’ang and lived in seclusion here. One day, he had a dream that when he was walking on a busy street with precious pearls in his hands, other people said to him, “Though your pearls are superior in quality, nobody wants to buy them and nobody can afford to buy them.” After he was enlightened, he came to realize that the time had not yet arrived to carry forward the Buddha dharma, therefore, he headed for Endi Mount to preach the merits and virtues of building temples.
During 35-year living in Endi Mount, La-qin successively enlightened some monks such as Zhijian, Shang-zuo-cheng, Jia-pa-ming-cheng, Hui-sheng, Ye-ji-xiang-Jin-gang, Sa-jia-cuo, rdo-rje-dbang-pyyug, DPal gyi dbang phyug, Sheng-hu-fa and Sheng-hui. He died at the age of 84.
Eighty years after anti-Buddhist persecution, rumors spread from place to place that there was Buddha dharma in Hsi-k’ang. Ye-see rgyal-mtshan, as a donor, provided financial aids to ten people so that they were able to go to Hsi-k’ang to learn Buddha dharma, including Klu med tshul khrims shes rab, Re-xi-jie-sheng, Ba-jie-hui, Song-ba-zhi-hui, Lo-ston-rdo-rje-dbang-pyyug, Cong-zun-hui-shi-zi, O-ri-ba brothers and Ba-dong-ba-wu-bo-de-jia. Someone also said that 7 people went to Hsi-k’ang first, including Klu med tshul khrims shes rab, Zhen, Cong-zun, Lo-ston-rdo-rje-dbang-pyyug, Song-ba, Jia-luo-zhuo-xi-rao and Fa-sheng, followed by another 5 people: Ta-yi-jia-pa, Re-xi, Ba-zun-hui-zi-zai, Fajiu and HUi-yuan. They visited gtsang-rab-gsal etc. after arriving in Hsi-k’ang and begged to become monks. gtsang-rab-gsal said, “I am too old to teach you. You can become monks by taking La-qin as your teacher.” Therefore, they took his advice. At that time, Klu med tshul khrims shes rab stayed in Hsi-k’ang, listening to and learning Vinaya rules while others returned to Tibet. On their way back, they met Ba-jie-hui and Re-xi’s brother in Langtang, who became self-confident after seeing his brothers become monks and decided to become a monk by following Lo-ston-rdo-rje-dbang-pyyug. Lo-ston-rdo-rje-dbang-pyyug told all these people, “You can live here for a short period of time. I will leave for Tibet to make an observation. If it is feasible to carry forward the Buddha dharma in Tibet, I will go there and you can follow me step by step.” Then he went to Tibet with some merchants, built Jingong Temple there and enlightened 24 monks. Klu med tshul khrims shes rab and other people also came to Tibet the next year. Though Lhasa was former center of Buddha dharma, they temporarily lived in Samye in fear that the prohibitions of anti-Buddhist Persecution still existed. At that time, King Ye-see rgyal-mtshan passed away and O-da-chi-ba, who firmly believed the Proper Dharma, ascended the throng. Therefore, Klu med tshul khrims shes rab, together with some other people, began to build temples throughout Tibet in order to enlighten the monks. As a result, the Buddha dharma gradually became prosperous.
Nevertheless, the extreme prosperity of Buddha dharma still depended on the power of Tibetan King O-ri. At that time, Kuo-re passed the government affairs on to his brother Song-nei, and became a monk under the dharma name of Zhiguang. He wanted to know about real Buddhism and thought that it was necessary to send people to India to learn Buddha dharma. Therefore, he gathered 21 people to head for India, among whom only Bao-xian and Shan-hui returned to Tibet finally and all the other people died of illness in India.
Bao-xian was able to recite Sanskrit alphabet at the age of 2. He became a monk by following Zhi-xian when he was 13 years old. Later, he decided to go to India and visit 75 masters such as Nu-re-ba, Jia-ma-la-gu-da, Sheng-you in person. This is the beginning of O-ri revitalizing the Buddha dharma.
Part 5 Division of Schools
1 迦当派 Bkah-Gdams-pa
After anti-Buddhist persecution, people could learn Buddha dharma inside and outside the temples and the order of practices was also not paid too much attention. In order to correct these defects, Bodhi repeatedly sent messagers to invite Atisha to preach Buddhist scriptures in Tibet. After entering Tibet, Atisha offered a lot of enlightenment, and arranged the existing Buddhist scriptures in Tibet to carry forward the argumentation. As a result, the schools arising at that time and during later periods were all influenced by Bkah-Gdams-pa.
2 萨嘉派 Sakya School
The third son Khon Lu Wangpo of Kun-ba-wo-jia, a minister of the King Chi-song, was one of the seventh Tibetans who became monks in the very beginning. His fourth son Si-shou had a son called Jin-gang-bao. The tradition was then passed on to S/a^kyabuddhi. S/a^kyabuddhi had two sons: the elder one Hui-jie also became a monk and lived a holy life; the younger one Bao-wang was familiar with exoteric and esoteric Buddhism as well as secular teachings. He once followed the translator Takuya and learned newly translated esoteric Dharma. When he was forty years old, he set up a temple in Benbo Mountain and gradually formed the Sakya School.
三 迦举派 Bka.hbrgyudpa
迦举 是教授传承的意思，此派始祖是玛巴法慧译师，他的四大弟子是俄敦法身金刚、粗敦旺内、梅敦村薄、弥拉惹巴。弥拉名叫闻喜，弟子有惹穹瓦金刚称和达薄拉结福宝，后来惹穹瓦到前藏各处弘法，七十八岁去世。达薄拉结将迦当派的道次第和弥拉的大印教授合起来著 道次第解脱庄严论 ，达薄拉结的后学称为 达薄迦举巴 。得法的弟子中最著名的是达薄贡粗、帕摩主巴、跋绒巴、都松钦巴。
“Bka.hbrgyud” means teaching and inheriting. The founder was the translator Mar-pa-chos-kyi-blo-gros, who had four disciples: E-dun Dharmakaya warrior, Cu-dun-wang-nei, Medun-cun-bo, and Mila-re-pa. Mila was originally named as Thopaga-wa and he had two disciples: Re-qiong-wa warrior and Da-bu-la-jie. Later Re-qiong-wa went to the “front Tibet” (including Lhasa and Lhoka Prefecture) to promote Buddhism and died at the age of 78. By combining Bkah-Gdams-pa’s Lam Rim and Mila’s Teachings of the Great Seal, Da-bu-la-jie wrote Lam Rim Relief Alankāra, which was called as Da-bu Bka.hbrgyudpa by his disciples. Among his followers who thoroughly understood the dharma, the most famous were Da-bu-gong-cu, Phag-mo-grub-pa, Ba-rong-pa, and Dus-gsum-mkhyen-pa.
四 响巴迦举派 Xiang-ba bka.hbrgyudpa
The founder was Khyung-po, who was able to understand the Sanskrit and Tibetan languages at 10 years old and began to learn Bon from Yungdrung Kawa. Later he changed to learn Dzogchen teachings from Sheng-shi-zi and began to preach to others because he was unsatisfied with Bon. During his lifetime, he set out from Tibet for three times and travelled to and fro between India and Nepal. He maintained a close relationship with over 150 masters such as rDo rje gdan pa, Mai tri pa, Secret Yogi, S Manikumar, Xu-qu-xi-di-kong-xing-mu and learnt the doctrines of Exotoric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism. After he returned to Tibet, he built Qiang-jia Monastery in Pen-yu-jue-bo Mountain to promote Buddhism. Later he built 108 Monasteries such as Rong-rong Monastery etc in Xiang-ba and carried forward Buddha dharma for more than 30 years. Therefore, the Xiang-ba bka.hbrgyudpa was founded. The inheritance of this school: Khyung-po lived a long life and had a lot of disciples, among whom the best ones included: Mei-wu-dun-pa, Yao-bo-jia Magha, Du-dun-ren-sheng, La-duo-gun-que-ka, Mo-jue-pa, and Xiang-gong-que-can etc.
五 希结派 Shi byed pa
Shi byed pa was inherited from Pha-dam-pa sans-rgyas, a monk from India. Shi byed means making your mind equanimous, that is to say, the gymnosophists can cease the eternal cycle of birth and death, and extinguish the distress and its source. After Pha-dam-pa sans-rgyas got brilliant achievements in India, he came to Tibet to impart Shi byed pa for 5 times and cultivated several disciples in Tibet. Pha-dam-pa sans-rgyas built a monastery in Dingri County early in 1097. In the 11th century A.D., Shi byed pa entered a period of great prosperity. At the beginning of the 15th century, Shi byed pa gradually declined due to lack of political support from the upper class and finally died out.
六 觉宇派 GCod yul pa
“GCod” means “being able to eliminate”, that is to say, to learn the teachings of gCod yul pa, you should eliminate self-interest through bodhi heart, and eliminate egocentrism through Prajna nastika. The combination of these two is able to eliminate the “four evils”. This school was also inherited from Pha-dam-pa sans-rgyas, who passed it on to Jue-dun-suo-nang Lama and Ya-long-ma-re-sai-bo while disseminating the dharma. Ya-long-ma-re-sai-bo passed it on to Nimba-sai-rong, who successively passed it on to Ze-dun and Song-dun.
七 觉囊派 Jo nang pa
The primary doctrine of Jo nang pa is “gzhan stong”, so it can be dated back to Yumo Mikyo Dorje. At the very beginning, Yumo Mikyo Dorje practised Yoga at home. Later he became a monk and was renamed as Danba-jeb. He learnt Renewal of Kalachakra, Esotericism Collection and other recondite dharma from Banchiang Dawa Gonpo and his disciple Sgro-ston Nan-Lazi, two eminent monks from Kashmir. After that, he achieved supreme enlightenment and wrote the core teachings of Kalachakratantra. When “gzhan stong” teachings were passed on to Ghombon Terje-zun-zhu, the fifth generation of disciple of Yumo Mikyo Dorje, this eminent monk built a temple named Jonang Monastery in the northeast of Lazi County in Tsang (Shigatse Prefecture). The sect that was founded with this monastery as a fundamental ashram was called as Jo nang pa. Among the disciples of Ghombon Terje-zun-zhu, there was a prominent figure, Kay-zun-yun-dan Gyaltsen. He inherited Jo nang pa and carefully cultivated a successor, namely the famous eminent monk Duo-po-pa-xi-rao Gyaltsen. Under his leadership, Jo nang pa was developed to some extent. Afterwards, Jo nang pa declined at one time. Later, some famous people in this sect helped to revitalize it.
第六节 教法的流通 The spread of Buddhist dharma
一 中观学 Mādhyamaka
As a sect of Mahayana, Mādhyamaka was founded by Nagarjuna and Deva. It was parallel to Yogacara Vijnanavada. Nagarjuna’s theory further developed the prajna thought of early Mahayana. Nagarjuna’s teacher was Luo-luo Bhadra, whose most well-known disciple was Deva. The book co-written by Nagarjuna and Deva laid a theoretical foundation for the early prajna Mādhyamaka. In his later years, Deva left the Nalanda Monastery and reached Ramgarh Nada in South India. He passed away after passing the Mādhyamaka teachings on to Rahu Bhadra, who was inherited by Vasetta and Qing-mu. Qing-mu wrote “Interpretation of Madhyamika-sastra”, which was translated to be “Madhyamika-sastra” by Kumarajiva. Vasetta wrote Interpretation of Sata-sastra. After Vasetta and Qing-mu, there was Sthiramati, whose Mahayanâvatara was translated to Chinese version by Dao-tai from Northern Liang. When Yogacara Vijnanavada was founded by Asanga and Vasubandhu, Mādhyamaka declined at one time. Later, under the unremitting efforts of Bhavyaviveka and Buddhapālita, it was revitalized.
二 因明学 Hetuvidyā
At the very beginning, Hetuvidyā was developed to facilitate the discussions and debates among different sects. It was used in the debates between Buddhism and other sects, and even between Mahayana and Hinayana. Before Hetuvidyā came into being, the existing knowledge was generally called as “correct principle” in ancient India. Hinayana took the lead in studying the thought of “correct principle”. The first written work of Hetuvidyā is Gates of Righteousne Sastra by Dharmatrata. Unfortunately, this books fails to be handed down. It is said that this book is similar to Upāya-Kauśalya-hṛdaya śāstra by Nagarjuna. Later at the period of Mahayana, Maitreya and Asanga thought it was feasible to adopt the thought of “correct principle”, which was then transformed to be Hetuvidyā. The term Hetuvidyā was first put forward by Asanga in his Yogacara-bhumi-sastra. After Asanga, Hetuvidyā was further developed by Vasubandhu, who wrote Vada-vidhi and Syllogistics. By then, Hetuvidyā had been in line with the fundamental doctrines of Buddhism though it was directly inhereted from the thought of “correct principle”. Therefore, they began to make Gtan-Tshigs-Rig-Pa (Hetuvidyā) and Nang-Don-Rig-Pa supplement each other. This was a result from the concerted effort of Maitreya, Asanga and Vasubandhu.
三 弥勒学 Maitreya
Five treatises of Maitreya are: Distinguishing Dharmas and Dharmata, Discerning the Middle and the Extremes, Sublime Continuum of the Mahayana, Abhisamayalankara, and Mahayana Sutralankara.
Abhisamayalankara “Abhisamaya” means current real evidence, namely knowing the truth clearly and thoroughly; “lankara” is a literary form, which means revealing truth accurately. The main content of Abhisamayalankara is the outline of Sanskrit “25,000 Odes to Prajnaparamita”, which is about the whole process of an ordinary person practising himself to achieve enlightenment gradually.
Mahayana Sutralankara Polopo Mitra, the translator, was a disciple of Silabhadra, an eminent monk from Ancient India. During the era of Wude (618 A.D.-626 A.D.) in the early Tang Dynasty, when Hsuan-Tsang had not yet left for India, Polopo Mitra came to China to disseminate the doctrines of Nalanda Monastery. At present there are three translation versions of Mahayana Sutralankara: a prose style, a gatha style and a commentary by Vasubandhu.
Distinguishing Dharmas and Dharmata Distinguishing means differentiating and discriminating. It is dharma and dharmata that are distinguished in this treatise, so it is called Distinguishing Dharmas and Dharmata. According to this treatise, dharma is about life and death while dharmata is about Three Vehicles Nirvana. Therefore, to differentiate dharma and dharmata is in fact to distinguish life and death on the one hand, and Nirvana on the other hand.
Discerning the Middle and the Extremes The Maitreya eulogium of this treatise only makes a list of theories of different schools. Besides, Vasubandhu also only decomposes the eulogium and gives a little explanation in the commentary. Therefore, it is very difficult to understand the interpretation.
Sublime Continuum of the Mahayana It is a representative work which expounds the tathā gatagarbha doctrines in an organized way.
四 密学 Esotericism
Esotericism means secret Buddhism, the opposite of “Exotoric Buddhism”. Esotericism came into being in the 5th – 6th century and lasted until the 13th century, when the Buddhism died out in India. Esotericism accounted for 1/3 of the entire history of Indian Buddhism, which lasted for over one thousand years. Esotericism expounds truths that are beyond words, so its symbolic system was highly developed. The most representative symbols were “sealing”, “mantra”, and “mandala” etc, which were developed gradually in the long history of Indian Buddhism.
Snga-dar Esotericism was finally developed into Nyingma system, whose fundamental theory was directly derived from Indian and Tibetan Esotericism during the 8th and 9th centuries, and was somewhat influenced by Terma, New Esoteric Buddhism, and Supreme Yoga Tantrism. Padmasambhava was the most prominent figure in early Tibetan Esotericism. As the founder of ancient Nyingma sect, he won respect from various sects of Esotericism, and was referred to as “Gu-lu-ren Buchen”. Padmasambhava was born in Udyana, East India. He obtained brilliant achievements in practising Esoteric Buddhism. With the help of Santaraksita, he built Samye Monastery.
Esotericism of Atisha and Marpa. The late Esotericism was commonly known as “Tantra”, which reached its peak during the 9th and 10th centuries in India. Some thoughts were introduced to Tibet by Rinchen Zangpo and Mi-di-zun-zhe, but they failed to form a sect with uniform and complete doctrines and practices. However, at the middle of the 11th century, the primary parts of Esotericism thoughts were brought to Tibet by some active Indian and Tibetan monks. Some branches of these thoughts were developed to be the subsequent sects. At that time, the most influential persons were Atisha and Marpa.
第三章 近代史 Chapter Three Modern History
In the Yuan Dynasty, because the Mongolian noblemen vigorously pushed Lamaism, it was introduced to Central China from Tibet and was popular among the upper rulers. Most of the Mongolian normal folks worshiped Shamanism. In the later Yuan Dynasty, Kagyupa became gradually corrupted. At the end of the 14th century, Tsongkhapa, a Tibetan lama from Qinghai province, founded the famous Gelugpa, which advocated that all monks should strictly observe the commandments, wear yellow clothes and hats. Therefore, it was referred to as Yellow Hat Sect, Shamanism for short.
第一节 黄教的开创 Section 1 How Shamanism was founded
1 始怀宏愿 A great aspiration
Tsongkhapa was born in a small village in Xining, Qinghai. When he was young, he was intelligent and showed an unusual talent. At 14 years old, he became a monk at Saga Temple, a small temple of Tashilhunpo monastery in Tibet. Later he went to Galdan Temple to learn Buddhist sutras from various sects in Tibet such as Sakya and Kaggu etc. At that time, Tibetan Buddhism had some problems, for example, disciplines for the monks were destroyed, and life in the temples were corrupted. To solve the problems, he proposed religious reform, requiring that the monks should strictly observe the commandments, not engage in farming, not get married, and reinforce system management in the monasteries and temples. Tsongkhapa thought that Kagyupa was already decayed, so a reform was necessary.
2 广事多闻 Being knowledgeable
Tsongkhapa learnt Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism for 10 years from the local Ganden sect. Later, he left for front and back Tibet to systematically learnt the teachings of Ganden sect and tantra. At that time, he was also influenced by the Exoteric doctrines of Sa-Skya-Pa. By organizing the Exoteric and Esoteric doctrines into a complete system which took practice and cultivation as its guiding principles, Tsongkhapa wrote several important books, in which he expressed his opinions on Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism. For example, Lam-rim-chen-mo and Sngags-rim-chen-mo expounded the main ideas of Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism in a systematic way. He was admired and respected by a large number of monks due to his brilliant Buddhism attainments.
3 教重修持 Focus on practice and cultivation
As for practice and cultivation, Tsongkhapa advocated that Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism should be regarded as equally important, and that Exoteric Buddhism should come before Esoteric Buddhism. Besides, he also emphasized that doctrines and Hetuvidya contributed to enlightment and liberation. The monks should pay equal attention to the teachings and behaviors, not abandon the commandments, and lay equal stress on two practice methods: stopping and contemplation. The teachings included both Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism, emphasizing that Exoteric Buddhism came before Esoteric Buddhism, and that the monks should learn the teachings step by step instead of giving up halfway. The learning should undergo a rigorous procedure and the examination and promotion were also strictly regulated. of Exoteric learners should recite 5 major sutras and acquire the Gussie degree before they can learn 4 major Yoga Tantras of the Esoteric Buddhism. The sect also had a rigid management system in the monasteries and temples, where the monk staff performed their own duties, and stiff hierarchies existed among the parent monastery and the subsidiary temples.
4 见行深广 Wide experience and extensive knowledge
Tsongkhapa became an ordained monk at 30 years old. He wrote Virtuous Explanation and Commentary of Abhisamayalankara at 31 years old and named it as Virtuous Teachings of Huwaalyapay Nyava. At the age of 34, he went to back Tibet to learn the 5-sequence Esoteric tantras. When he was 36, he left for Lhasa to pay homage to Sakya Buddha. He stayed secluded for practice in the next 1-2 years. At the age of 38, he repaired the Maitreya temple at Jingji. He listened to Interpretation of the Bodhi Road Lamp, Collection of Five-sequence Esoteric Tantras etc by following Fayi when he was 40 years old. He went to preach Bodhisattva Vows, Fifty Odes to Following Teachersand 14 Fundamental Esoteric Precepts etc in Ka-wa-tong at the age of 44. He worte Lam-rim chen-mo at 46 years old and preached Abhisamayalankara one year later. He moved to Xi-lei-pu Monastery and widely preached Interpretation of Hetuvidya at 48 years old. When he was 51, he went to front Tibet and was empowered with the most virtuous and awe-inspiring. He wrote Argue about Drangdon at 52. He preached Madhyamika, Hetuvidya, Lam-rim chen-mo etc to hundreds of people including the Dharma-Raja when he was 58. At 59, he wrote Brief Account of Lam-rim-chen-mo. He finished writing Interpretation of Madhyamakavatara at Gordon Temple when he was 62 years old. At the end of the same year, he began to carve Collection of Fundamental Esoteric Tantras and finished it the next year. When he was 63, he preached the teachings of Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism, such as Sheng-le-lun Fundamental Sutras and finished writing Commentary of Sheng-le-lun Fundamental Sutras. On October 25 that year, he passed away.
5 修密功德 Contributions to Esoteric Buddhism
Tsongkhapa moved to Xi-lei-pu Monastery at 48 years old. Later he went for Er-ka and lived at Maitreya temple in order to preach the Buddhist sutras. Invited by Sheng-yi Dharma-Raja, he wrote Sngags-rim-chen-mo, which expounded the main ideas of 4 major Esoteric tantras.
6 建立圣教 Founding the sect
In the early 15th century, Tibetan Buddhism underwent a rapid development due to the vigorous support from the central and local governments. However, the competition among various sects became increasingly fierce. At that time, Buddhism was already integrated into the politics. In this context, Tsongkhapa realized that Lamaism had to be reformed. Therefore, he, according to the Buddhism sutras, advocated “practice austerities”, “highly esteem the commandments”, “avoid marriage, wine and killing”. Besides, he also expounded and propagated the relationship between Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism, stipulated the sequence of learning Buddhism, decided the monks’ living criteria, right and wrong criteria, sutras-learning procedure, and the organization system in the monasteries and temples. In short, Tsongkhapa set up a new Buddhism sect that adhered to “commandments first”, attached equal importance to Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism, inherited Ganden and integrated various sects, that is, Gelukpa. The reform required that the monks should strictly observe the commandments, behave themselves, respec the superior and get along well with the subordinate. Therefore, it was admired and supported by the rulers and upright monks, so that the reform went very well and became a great success. Gelukpa was also referred to as Yellow-Hat-Sect because the monks wear yellow hats.
第二节 黄教之传布 Section 2 Dissemination of Gelukpa
The religious reform launched by Tsongkhapa relied on the support of the rulers in Tibet —- Phagdru regime. Grags-pa rgyal-mtshan, who was authorized as Propagation Prince of Persuasion by the emperor of Ming Dynasty, was the ruler who dominated the Tibetan area. He held a large-scale supplication ceremony by investing a large number of money and materials, and calling together thousands of monks from various sects. Grags-pa rgyal-mtshan himself and his subordinate officials tooke the initiative to participate in the ceremony. It was not only an important dharma assembly that indluded all the Buddhism sects throughout the Tibetan area, but also was presided by Tsongkhapa, the founder of Gelukpa. As a result, it greatly expanded the influence of Tsongkhapa’s religious reform and helped to establish the advantages of Gelukpa.
Funded by the Propagation Prince of Persuasion and his subordinate officials, Tsongkhapa built Gandan monastery. His disciple Jiang-yang-qie-ji and Sakya Jehiel successively built Drepung Monastery, Sera Monastery and Tashilhunpo monastery. These monasteries were large in scale and became 4 major Gelukpa monasteries in front Tibet. After they were completed, a large number of temples and monks that had worshiped Gandan in various regions changed to worship Gelukpa in succession. Later, the Gelukpa monks made every effort to revitalize the old temples and build new temples in various regions of Tibet, leading to emergence of large numbers of Gelukpa monasteires and temples, and rapid growth of Gelukpa monks. Therefore, Gelukpa became gradually influential in Tibet. Apart from the 4 major monasteirs, Gelukpa had its centers in Qinghai Ta’er Lamasery, Gansu Labrang Lamasery and Mongolian Erdene Zuu Monastery.
卷五 Volume 5
Stod ses-rab bzan-po came from Ali. After he finished learning, he returned to Ali and built Ta Mok Monastery in Man-yul to carry forward the teachings of Tsongkhapa.
Smad ses-rab bzan-po was born in Hsi-k’ang. At first, he learnt Shamanism teachings at Sera Monastery. Afterwards, he went back to Hsi-k’ang and built monasteries and temples in Ch’ang-Tu. Since then, Shamanism had prevailed in Hsi-k’ang.
Soinam Gyaco, the third Dalai Lama, came to Qinghai for the second time and was invited to Ta’er Lamasery from Tso Kar by Shen-zhong-ang-suo at the local area. He advised Rin-chen rgyal-mtshan and other Tibetan tribes to extend the Ta’er Lamasery. Later he built an Exotoric Buddhism academy to preach Shamanism teachings and Ta’er Lamasery turned into a formal Shamanism temple.
Ses-sen, a disseminator of Tantra, has Madhyamika right views in his heart, obtained samadhi virtues, and had blessings from the Buddha, therefore, he was able to focus on his work and entirely learnt Tantra such as Sang-du, Bde mchog from masters. He learnt everything that other disciples were unable to master, so he was the best at carrying forward the Buddha dharma among all the disciples. At first when he listened to a master preach Tantra at Se-re Monastery, the master not only explained to him Sang-du Candrakirti notes, but also gave him Yama Dharmaraja mask, stick and rope. After he learnt from Hui-shi-zi Dharmaraja, he went to Tsang together with Gen-dun-zhu-ren-bo-qing. At that time, he listened to various teachings of Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism. All the other followers learnt Tantra from Hui-shi-zi Dharmaraja, and learnt Exoteric Buddhism from Gen-dun-zhu-ren-bo-qing. The audience was numerous as never before. As the preaching became increasingly prosperous, Hui-shi-zi Dharmaraja said: ‘it is time for me to carry forward Tantra.’ Therefore, he began to roam about the world. When he got to Lun-bo-ding Temple, Sheng-guang-de-hai, the abbot of the temple, humbly asked him for Buddhist teachings. Sheng-guang-de-hai wrote Notes on Torch Light, which was popular in Sang-du. Hui-shi-zi Dharmaraja knew that what he wrote was about Yamantaka yoga, so he built the altar of practice and spoke Sang-du rituals at the temple. He also gave the Yama Dharmaraja mask, stick and rope to this temple and they are still well preserved up to now.
第三节 黄教的教义 Section III Shamanism Teachings
Tsongkhapa wrote “Lam Rim Chen Mo” based on Attisha’s “Lamp for the Path”. According to “Lam Rim Chen Mo”, he put forward Exoteric Buddhism’s learning and practicing sequence, which focused on three essentials: renunciation mind, bodhimind, the view of emptiness. Finally he wrote “Lam Rim Chen Mo” to normalize Esoteric Buddhism’s learning and practicing. In terms of philosophical theories, he focused on the later Madhyamika, believed in the teaching of interdependent origination and empty in essence, and provided learning and practicing guidance for Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism. Compared with other sects, he developed a more rigorous system.
Shamanism emphasizes paying equal attention to tranquility and insight, which, however, is different in content from “tranquility and insight being parallel” maintained by Tiantai Sect in central China. Shamanism takes Yogacara’s “serenity” as the supreme state, thinking that as long as they control their mental activity by practicing tranquility and finally achieve one-pointed mind, they can acquire physical “serenity”; insight practice rests with rational thinking, which aims to achieve final combination of “mind” and “reason” and acquire mental “serenity”. “Serenity” refers to the feeling of tranquility and comfort in body and mind, which can help to control restless heart and irritable mood.
According to Shamanism teachings, Shakyamuni Buddha’s proper dharma can only be divided into two types: teaching and testifying. All ‘teaching’ dhamma is contained in Tipitaka: sutras, laws and theories; while all ‘testifying’ dharma is contained in threefold training: precepts, concentration, and wisdom. Therefore, both Tipitaka and threefold training should be learnt and practiced as a whole. At that time, some Buddhists in Tibet paid no attention to extensive learning. They even satirized that those who learnt much about Tipitaka were differentiating masters or theory jokesters. They thought that as long as they followed a simple and initial approach, they could finally achieve enlightenment. Some Buddhists bragged that they were experienced and knowledgeable after learning only one sutra. Shamanism strongly advocates to learn much about and ponder over the sutras; to carefully learn and practice the threefold training of Mahayana and Hinayana; to endeavor to learn and think about the Vinaya-pitaka in order to comprehend precepts and concentration; and to pay attention to learning and practicing of Abhidhamma Pitaka, so that one can achieve wisdom after understanding the nature of all dharma. Shamanism takes ‘bodhimind’ and ‘six perfections’ in Mahayana Tripitaka as the essentials of learning, practicing, behaving and achieving enlightenment.
Shamanism integrates the advantages of other sects in Tibet, including the everlasting ‘upstream precepts’ and ‘downstream precepts’ passed down in Tibet; Bkah-Gdams-pa’s Lam-rim chen-po and bodhimind teachings; sutras written by E-luo-zha-wa and his pupil such as “Abhidharmakosa-sastra”, “Abhisamayalankara”, “Madhyamika-sastra”, and “Hetuvidya”; work collections passed down by Ma-pa and Lang-luo-zha-wa; kalachakra passed down by Re, Zhuo, and Xiong; bde mchog and Hevajra passed down by Sakyapa masters; Great Wheel Vajrapani passed down by Ma-ji; 4 mandala abhisheka “red, black, fear, respect” passed down by Re, Jue and Dang; ka brgyudpa’s Mahamudra, Six Pratices of Naropa, and Six Doctrines of Niguma.
第四节 教派的沿革 Section IV Evolution of religious sects
旧派 Old school
Zur sakya Jungne obtained a lot of crammeds passed down from the 8th and 9th century. He reorganized these crammeds into an entire system, built Ukpalung Monastery, gathered disciples and propagated these crammeds, thus forming Zur school. At that time, apart from Zur school, there were Rong-song school, Ruo school, and the subsequent Rong-qin-ning school. Because these schools carried forward core teachings during bsTan pa sna dar skabs, they gradually evolved into an independent sect, which was called “old school”.
The ancestor of Sakyapa was a Tibetan nobleman, Kun-long-wang-hu, the third son of Kun-ba-wo-qie, a minister of Tibetan king Chi-song-de-zan. He is one the first seven monks in Tibet. Jin-gang-bao, the son of Si-shou, Kun-long-wang-hu’s fourth son, passed down Kun-long-wang-hu’s teachings to Sākyabuddi, who had two sons. His elder son became a monk and his second son Bao-wang not only mastered the teachings of Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism, but also knew how to practice physiognomy. Bao-wang once learnt the newly translated Esoteric Buddhism teachings from Drogmi. He also learnt all teachings of Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism from Dun-ku-ba-la-ze, kasmira kingdom’s Hang-du-qie-bo, Mah-bao-sheng, and Ziemba. When he was forty years old, he built a monastery on Benbo Mountain. Later, Sakyapa was gradually founded. After the monastery was built, Bao-wang took in charge of it and propagated the Buddha dharma there for 30 years. After he passed away, his son Qing-xi-chuang was still a child, so Ba-ri-shi-li was invited to manage the monastery and teach Qing-xi-zang to learn Buddha dharma. After 12 years old, Qing-xi-zang learnt Madhyamika and Hetuvidya from Qiong-bao-cheng and Mei-lang-cui-xue. Later he learnt tantra and Mahakala from Sheng-chuang brothers; learnt Hevajra from Zha-la-ba; learnt Bde mchog and Mahan ge-luo from Gong-tang-ba-mei; and learnt Bde mchog from Bu-shang-luo-qiong. From 29 years old, Qing-xi-zang learnt Buddhism immortal teachings from Xiang-dun-fa-ran for four years. When he was 47 years old, Bi-wa-pa came to Sakya Monastery from India, and Qing-xi-zang learnt from him 72 continued teachings and 14 profound approaches. Therefore, Qing-xi-zang became the teaching host of all Esoteric dharma. He took charge of Sakya Monastery for 48 years and had a lot of disciples. He had 4 children. The elder son of his fourth son Da-ji-xiang-guang was the famous Sakya Panchen. Sakya Panchen was originally named Ji-xiang-yi-cheng or Qing-xi-chuang. Before 15 years old, he was named Chuang after his father’s elder brother, and completely learnt all teachings of Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism passed down by Sakyapa. When he was 19 years old, he listened to King-kong song following Ka-qie Panchen and learnt various theories of Maitreya from Yu-dun King-kong. At 20 years old, he learnt Hetuvidya from Ma-you Bodhi Jing-jin and Cu-dun-tong-shi-zi; learnt Sects Theory from Ze-pa-zi-zai-shi-zi; learnt tranquil extinction, great completeness, prajahati, and Jia-dang from Ji-wo-lei-ba Bodhi Guang. When Qing-xi-chuang was 23, Sakya-shi-li came to Tibet from Kasmira Kingdom, so Qing-xi-chuang learnt Hetuvidya from him and his disciples including Sangha-shi-li, Shan-shi-shi-li, and Tan-na-shi-luo. Therefore, Qing-xi-chuang was titled as Sakya Panchen. At the age of 27, he became an ordained monk following Ka-qie Panchen. When he was 38 years old, he wrote Treasures of Correct Principle. At 51, he wrote sDom gsum rab dbye and got rid of all heretical ideas. When he was 59 years old, he succeeded in persuading 6 heretics, headed by He-li-xi in South India, into believing Buddhism. At 63, he went to Xiliang to propagate the Buddha dharma at the invitation of Xiliang Kuodan. He passed away at the age of 70.
Sakyapa teachings: There were many Sakyapa teaching hosts, among whom, the most famous were Ya and Rong from Exoteric Buddhism and E and Zong from Esoteric Buddhism. Ya was Ya-chu-fo-xiang, the son of Zetang Bodhi Bao-ti-bao. He learnt Exoteric Buddhism from Jing-jin-xiang and Esoteric Buddhism from Zhi-xiang in Sakya Monastery and Zetang Monastery. Rong was Rong-dun-shuo-fa-shi-zi, a disciple of Ya-chu-fo-xiang. When he was yong, he learnt Bon. He came to Tibet at 18 years old to learn Buddha dharma from Pou Sheng and Zi-zai at Gsang-phu Monastery, and finally mastered 5 sciences. He bacame an ordained monk following Qing-xi-chuang, the abbot of Zhuo-sa Monastery. He wrote notes and commentaries on Pramāna-viniścaya and vigorously propagated it. When he was 27, he met Ya-chu and learnt Exoteric Buddhism rituals from him. He also learnt core teachings of Tantrayana from Mahayana Dharma-Raja Qing-xi-ji-xiang. When he was 72 years old, he built Na-lan-zha Monastery and carried forward Buddha dharma there for 14 years. He died at the age of 83. He cultivated a lot of talents, most of whom became disciples of Tsongkhapa later. Da-bu-ji-xiang-sheng inherited the dharma seat at Na-lan-zha Monastery.
Jo-nang-ba was founded in the 13th century by Gun-bang-tu-ji-zun-zhui, a disciple of Phags-pa lama, a great figure of Tibetan Buddhism. Gun-bang-tu-ji-zun-zhui developed his own sect later, which was called Jo-nang-ba because he chose Jo-nang as his propagation center.
迦举派 Bka brgyudpa
The founder of Bka brgyudpa was Mar-pa-chos-kyi-blo-gros. He was born in Loza, Tibet, and was sent to learn Buddha dharma from Drogmi. He went to India for three times and to Nepal for four times. He learnt Anuttarayoga sutras from 108 good knowing advisors including Na ro pa, Mai tri pa, Jnanagarbha and Jing-xian, carefully studied all teachings and practices, and attained the Mahamudra following Mai tri pa. He cultivated a lot of disciples and the primary four are E-dun Dharmakaya King Kong, Cu-dun-wang-nei, Mei-dun-cun-bo, and Mi-la ras-pa. He passed the buddhist scriptures down to the former three disciples, who further passed them on from one to another, and extensively propagated the teachings of “tantra”, “bde mchog”, “hevajra”、“the four-seater”, and “great illusion”. Later, these scriptures were passed to Buton and Tsongkhapa, and were widely carried forward. They still exist today. Mar-pa-chos-kyi-blo-gros taught Mi-la ras-pa how to cultivate himself according to the Buddhist doctrine. Due to Mar-pa, Mi-la, and Dubbo, Bka brgyudpa developed faster and more extensively than any other sect. However, due to its increasing influence and because many of its factions had political power at the local area, most chaos in Tibet in Yan and Ming Dynasties was caused by Bka brgyudpa. For example, Xi-du Bodhi Chuang, who usurped Sakyapa regime in 1349, belonged to Phag mo grub pa; Ren-beng-ba-shan-cai and subsequent Kar-ma-cui-dun-duo-jie, who usurped Pa-zhu regime in 1435, also belonged to Bka brgyudpa; Lama Xiang deliberately launched a war. The abbots of Drikung-pa and Da-long-pa also had political power at the local area. In 1290, due to the conflicts with Sakyapa, Drikung Monastery was burned to the ground. Kar-ma-pa was involved into the government conspiracy led by Kar-ma-dun-jiong, as a result, it suffered great loss when Gushri Khan ordered troops to march forward Tibet in 1640.
第五节 政治的变迁 Section V Political changes
Tibetan politics traces back to Tubo period. At that time, Srongtsen Gampo built Jokhang Temple and Ramoche Temple because his wives Wen Cheng princess and Nepali princess sincerely believed in Buddhism. From then on, all the subsequent Tibetan kings believed in Buddhism.
At that time, for their own benefit, the Tibetan king who believed in Buddhism and the royal family who believed in Bon fought with each other. After Glang dar ma was assassinated, Tubo Dynasty collapsed, Tibet was divided, and local nobilities became newly-developing feudal lords. Shamanism was suppressed by other sects after being founded. For survival, it sought for foreign aid from the secular world in the fights with different religious sects. Therefore, it developed relationship with Gushri Khan, the leader of Mongolian Heshuote Troop.
The increasing power of the nobilities in the local government and continuous suppress on the monks inevitably aggravated the contradiction between the monks and the secular in the government. Various power struggles between the worldly administrative leaders and religious leaders broke out continuously. In order to stabilize the society and alleviate the disparities between the monks and the secular in the government, central government of Qing dynasty assigned Gaisang Gyaco, the 7th Dalai Lama, to be Tibetan supreme leader, who had both political power and religious power. This was the beginning of joint control of political and religious power by nobilities and upper layer monks in Tibet under the supervision of the ministers dispatched to Tibet by the central government of Qing Dynasty. The supreme power of Tibetan government transferred from the worldly nobilities to Dalai. The central government of Qing Dynasty recovered and strengthened Dalai’s status in the government.
卷六 Volume 6
第六节 达赖世系 Section 6 Dalai Lama Lineage
Since the 15th year of Chongzhen’s reign, the Tibetan regime was under the management of Dalai Lamas.
第一到第十三世 The first to the thirteenth Dalai Lamas
Gêdün Chub, the first Dalai Lama, was born into a farm near Sakya in the Tsang region of central Tibet in the 25th year of Zhu Yuanzhang’s reign. The family included his father Gonpo Dorjee, his mother Jomo Namkha Kyi and five children among which Gêdün Chub ranked the third. Due to limited resources, he was raised as a shepherd in the family. At an age of 15, he became a monk. In March of this year, he took his novice vows from the abbot of Narthang, Khenchen Drupa Sherab; five years later, he took the vows of a fully ordained monk, or Gelong, from the abbot of Narthang Monastery. When he was 25 years old, he went to visit the great scholar and reformer Tsongkhapa together with his master Duan-zhi-ke and was fully convinced by his wisdom and knowledge. So, he became a student of Tsongkhapa and learned Gelugpa teachings from him. After the death of Master Tsongkhapa in Gandan monastery, he followed Jia-jie-wen-xi, the second master of Gandan monastery, to learn Exoteric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism . In 1432, Jia-Jie passed away, so Gêdün Chub learned more teachings from Khedrub. In 1447, funded by Nai-qiong-ji-pa-ban-jue-sang-bu, the lord of Sangzhuze, Gêdün Chub built Tashilhunpo and then became the seat of the Panchen Lamas for 38 years. Tashilhunpo then became the only large temple in the Tsang region of central Tibet as well as one of the Four Great Gelugpa Temples in Tibet. Later, this Temple also built Gelugpa, Buddha and statues to worship excellent disciples, which contributed to the spread of Tibetan Buddhism. On December 8th of the 10th year of Chenghua’ reign, he passed sway at an age of 83 (also recorded as 84).
Gendun Gyatso, the second Dalai Lama, was born in Dana on December 3 in the 11th year of Chenghua’s reign as the son of Kunga Gyaltsen (father) and Machik Kunga Pemo (mother). At an age of 11, he received his novice vows from Panchen Lungrig Gyatso in Tashilhunpo. In 1494, invited by Ghoje Choekyi Gyaltsen, the abbot of Drepung Monastery, he learned Buddhist scriptures in this Temple. Later, he became a student of Ghoje Choekyi Gyaltsen and took his vows of an ordained monk. In 1517, in response to the invitation of many monks, he served as the tenth abbot of Drepung Monastery; in 1526, he also assumed as the ninth abbot of Sera Monastery. He built Galdan Phodrang Hall in Drepung Monastery, which then became the residence of later generations of Dalai Lamas and him. In the 21th year of Jiajing’s reign, Gedun Gyatso died deep in meditation at the age of 68.
Sonam Gyatso, the third Dalai Lama, was born in Duolong on January 15 of the 22nd year of Jiajing’s reign as the son of Nan-jie-zha-ba(father) and Bei-zong-bu-chi (mother). At the age of 3, he could talk in detail about foreordination so people all knew that he was the rebirth of Gendun Gyatso and invited him to Drepung Monastery in the 25th year of Jiajing’s reign. When he was 7 years old, he took his novice vows from the then abbot of Drepung Monastery, Sonam Drakpa. At the age of 11, he was recommended by general acclaim as the 12th abbot. When he was 22 years old, he became a student of Greux Pasang and took the vows of a fully ordained monk. On March 26th of the 16th year of Wanli’s reign, he passed away in Mongolia at the age of 46.
Yontan Gyatso, the fourth Dalai Lama, was born in the 17th year of Wanli’s reign in Tulu-Khan People Mongolia and talk in detail about foreordination in his childhood. When he was 14 years old in the 30 year of Wanli’s reign, he went to Tibet and acceded to the throne of dGa’ ldan pho brangin Drepung Monastery and took his novice vows in Jokhang Monastery. In the 42nd year of Wanli’s reign when he was 26 years old, he took the vows of a fully ordained monk from Panchen Luo-sang-que-ji-jian-zan. At that time, the Lama Luo-zhuo was building a monastery in Mainland China and required a master to bless the monastery. The master threw rice on the palace of misc. Drepung Monastery so that the whole monastery was covered with rice. He left his footprints on the stone when he was having a bath in the hot spring. Later, he said something about the future and passed way on December 15.
Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso, the fifth Dalai Lama, was born in 1617 (45 years of the emperor Wanli) in Tsing-wa-da-che. His father was du-rao-deng and his mother was gong-ge-la-ze. At the age of 6, he was initiated into a monk by the fourth Dalai Lama, Yonten Gyatso, and learnt from him Stages of Enlightenment Theory and many other Buddhist sutras since. In 1653 when he was 36, he was invited to Beijing by the emperor Shun-chih, where he was treated as an equal and offered an imperial proclamation inscribed in gold, calling him ‘Dalai Lama, Vajra Holder and Master of the Teaching’. He passed away in his 66 year in 1682 (the 21 years of Emperor Shun-chih).
Tsangyang Gyatso, the sixth Dalai Lama, was born in 1683 (the 22 years of Emperor Kangxi). His father was Zha-xi-dan-zeng and his mother was Ci-wang-la-mu. He was initiated into a monk by Shan-hui-zhi in September 1689. On 25 October, he went to Lhasa for the enthronement ceremony. Later, due to conflicts between Fo-hai, the Tibetan King and la-sang, the king of Mongolia, Fo-hai was murdered. Emperor Kangxi sent imperial envoy to mediate and La-sang defamed Fo-hai with bad words. The envoy was in a dilemma and he had to have Tsangyang Gyatso go to Beijing for imperial edict. When he went to the territory of Qinghai, the emperor blamed the envoy for his bad mediation. As the envoy did not know what to do, Tsangyang Gyatso decided to give up his position and went to India, Nepal, Kang, Tibet, Gansu, Qinghai, Mongolia and other places to preach. At that time, the imperial envoy had to declared that Tsangyang Gyatso had passed away to close the case.
Kelzang Gyatso, the seventh Dalai Lama, was born in Lithang of Eastern Tibet in the 47 years of Emperor Kangxi. His father’s name was Suo-nan-da-jie and his mother’s name was Suo-nan-qu-cuo. His reign started on 15 September 1721 when he was 13. He was ordained by Ngawang Lobsang Tenpai Gyaltsen. Later, he went to Drepung Monastery to study Buddhist sutras. When he was 20, he took the vows of a fully ordained monk from fifth Dalai Lama. He took office in 16 years of Emperor Qianlong when he was 44. Kelzang Gyatso lived a humble and simple life all his life and earned wide respect from Tibetan monks and laymen. He passed away in his fifty years on 13 February 1757, the 22 years of Emperor Qianlong.
Jamphel Gyatso, the eighth Dalai Lama, was born in 1758 (the 23 years of Emperor Qianlong ) at Lhari Gang in the Upper Ü-Tsang region of southwestern Tibet. His father was Sonam Dhargye and mother was Phuntsok Wangmo. On January 1761(the 26 years of Emperor Qianlong), he was taken under a large contingent of lamas and officials to Tashilhunpo Monastery in Shigatse, and was invited to live in De-wa-jian Monastery near Nie-tang. He was enthroned as the leader of the Tibetan people in the Potala Palace in July 1762 (the 27 years of Emperor Qianlong). When was 30, he was ordained by sixth Dalai Lama. In the 35 years of Emperor Qianlong was asked to send Sang-jie-e-se and other monks to Drepung Monastery to hold the post of Khenpo. In the 42 years of Emperor of Qianlong, he was fully ordained by sixth Dalai Lama. He passed away on 18 October 1804 (the 9 years of Emperor Jiaqing) when he was 47.
Lungtok Gyatso, the ninth Dalai Lama, was born the monastery of Dan Chokhor on December 1 in the tenth year of the JIaqing reign as the son of Tendzin Chokyong and Dondrub Dolma. He was sent to Lhasa from Xikang at an age of 3. When he was 4 years old, he held the enthronement ceremony on September 22 in Potala Palace. Later, he studied Buddhist scriptures in misc. Drepung Monastery and took the vows of a fully ordained monk on September 22 at an age of 9 in Jokhang Temple. He passed way on February 11 at an age of 11.
Tsultrim Gyatso, the tenth Dalai Lama, was born in Chamdo (eastern Tibet) on March 29 in the 21st year of the Jiaqing period as the son of Luo-sang-nian-za (father) and Nan-ka-bu-chi (mother). In 1822, he took his novice vows from the seventh Panchen Dan-bai-ni-ma 822 and received the enthronement ceremony on August 8 of the same year in Potala Palace. At the age of 13, he studied scriptures in Drepung Monastery and became a student of the seventh Panchen and took the vows of a fully ordained monk. He died on September 1 in the 17th year of the Daoguang reign at an age of 22.
Kay Pergato, the eleventh Dalai Lama, was born near the Taining Temple on the 1st of the September in the 18th of the Daoguang period. His father’s name was Cui-wang-dun-zhu, and his mother Yong-zhong-bu-chi. In 1842, Kay Pergato was succeeded in the Potala Palace. At that time, because the relationship between the representative from the government and the Tibet Regency was worsened, the king changed his mind and appointed Panchen to administrate Tibet as a means of punishing the Tibet Regency. In 1845, at the request of all walks of life in Tibet, the Panchen Lama asked for a resignment and returned to Tashilhunpo Monastery. In January of 1855, Kay Pergato took over the administration of the religion and the governance in Tibet. In the same year, on 24th December, he passed away at the age of only 18.
Dslegato, the twelfth Dalai Lama, was born on the 1st of December in the 6th of th Xianfeng period near rdzing-phyi. His father’s name was Peng-cuo-cai-wang, and his mother Ze-ren-yu-zhong. When he was four-year-old, he was succeeded in the Potala Palace in July. At the age of 8, he acknowledged Luo-sang-qin-rao-wang-xiu as a master and experienced Shamijie. He reigned Tibet when he was 18 and then paid respects to the three major monasteries: Sera, Drepung, and Ganden, went on pilgrimage to Our Lady of the lake and the Qu-ke-jia Temple, and later gave lectures to places like Samye Gompa etc. He returned to Lhasa in 1874 and passed away on the 20th of March at the age of 20.
Tu-dun Pergato, the thirteenth Dalai Lama, was born on the 5th of May in the second year of the Guangxu period in a farmer’s home in Langdun Village. His father’s name was Gong-ge-ren-qin, and his mother Luo-sang-zhuo-ma. He became a monk in the third year of the Guangxu period. He was succeeded in the Potala Palace in the 14th of June in the fifth year in the Guangxu period and experienced Shamijie in the 8th year of the Guangxu period in Jokhang Temple. In the 14th year witnessed the first war that Britain invaded Tibet. Tu-dun Pergato started to learn ‘Yinming’ when he was 11, and he was taught debating by Luo-sang-suo-nan from the Sera Monastery and Luo-sang-peng-cuo from the Ganden Monastery. He started his learning of ‘Xianzongfayi’ at the age of 18, and when he was 20,he experienced Biqiujie in Jokhang Temple on the 11th of January. He started his reign over Tibet on the 8th of August of the 21st of the Guangxu period, being the highest governor of religion and Tibet and dealing with the political and religious affairs. After that, he against the surrender policy issued by the representatives of the government. In order to well-prepared to against the invasion from Britain, he proposed to Guangxu Emperor to ask for help to solve the arms and financial problems, but was rejected. After the failure of the war in Jiangzi that Tibetan army against Britain, to avoid being captured and listen to the advice from many experienced monks, Tu-dun Pergato secretly leave Tibet to Qinghai and Mongolia, and he lived in Kulun for two years. In April of the 33rd year, the Department of the Rites invited him to pay pilgrim to Wutai Mountain and then went to Beijing. From the Tar Temple, he reached Wutai Mountain in the 34th of the Guangxu period and on the 3rd of March, he arrived at Beijing and paid visits to Dragon Lady and Emperor Guangxu. In the same year, Emperor Guangxu was died on the 21st of October and was succeeded by Emperor Xuantong on the 9th of November when Tu-dun Pergato was also invited. On the 28th of November, he left for Tibet and reached Lhasa on the 30th of October in the next year. After he returned to Tibet, the relationship with the representatives of the government was worsened, which resulted in the army form Sichuan invaded Tibet. In the 2rd of Feb. of the 2rd year of the Xuantong period, he escaped to India, and later returned to Lhasa in December of the first year of the Republic of China when the Qing Dynasty had fallen down. He then took over the political and religious affairs in Tibet. He died on the 30th of October of the 22rd of the Republic of China at the age of 58. Tu-dun Pergato was well-known for his industry in learning for his whole life, especially his thoroughly study of the classics. In most Tibetan monks’ mind, his contributions to the political and religious affairs in Tibet as well as the peace in the world are equal to the fifth and the seventh Dalai. Tu-dun Pergato had a good command of ‘Lanxiao’ language, ‘Wuerdu’ language, Chinese, Mongolian and English. He knew Buddhism well, and he also studied a wide range of new disciplines, such as politics, laws, economics, astronomy, phonology and geography.
附 班禅世系表 Attachment: Table of Panchen Lamas
第一世 克主杰 明洪武18年4月初8生于后藏朶庸。正统3年2月21日圆寂，寿54。是宗喀巴大师的高足，第一世达赖的师长。
The first Panchen Lama: Khedrup Gelek Pelzang He was born in the Tsang region of central Tibet on April 8 of the 18th year of the Hongwu period and died on February 21 of the third year of the Zhengtong period at an age of 54. He is a pupil of Master Tsongkhapa and the commander of the first Dalai Lama.
第二世 梭囊却朗 译名福方象。正统4年正月15日生于后藏闻萨，弘治17年2月25日圆寂，寿66。
The second Panchen Lama: Sönam Choklang Translated as Fu-fang-xiang. He was born in Wensa in the Tsang region of central Tibet on January 15 of the fourth year of the Zhengtong period and died on February 25 in the 17th year of the Hongzhi period at an age of 66.
第三世 罗桑敦主 译名善慧义成。弘治18年正月初4生于后藏拉库。嘉靖45年2月23日圆寂，寿62。
The third Panchen Lama: Ensapa Lobsang Döndrup Translated as Shan-hui-yi-cheng. He was born in Laku in the Tsang region of central Tibet on January 4 in the 18th year of the Hongzhi reign and passed away on February 23 in the 45th year of the Jiajing period at an age of 62.
第四世 罗桑却吉坚赞 译名善慧法幢。隆庆元年4月15日生于藏绒楞主贾。1岁后去世。隆庆4年后复生其家。清康熙元年2月13日圆寂，寿93。
The fourth Panchen Lama: Lobsang Chökyi Gyalsten Translated as Shan-hui-fa-chuang. He was born in Tibetan on April 15 in the first year of Longqing’s reign and died at an age of 1. Three years later, he was born again into this family and passed away on February 13 in the first year of the Kangxi period at an age of 93.
第五世 罗桑耶歇 译名善慧智。康熙2年7月15日生于后藏沱贾，乾隆2年8月初5圆寂，寿75。
The fifth Panchen Lama: Lobsang Yeshe Translated as Shan-hui-zhi. He was born in Tuojia on July 15 in the second year of the Kangxi period and passed away on August 5 in the second year of the Qianlong period at an age of 75.
第六世 拔敦耶歇 译名祥智。乾隆3年11月1日生于乡札喜贼。乾隆45年圆寂于北平，寿43。
The sixth Panchen Lama: Lobsang Palden Yeshe Translated as Xiang-zhi. He was born in Township Zagreb on November 1 in the third year of the Qianlong reign and died in the 45th year of the Qianlong period at an age of 43.
第七世 敦必尼日 译名圣教日。乾隆47年4月初8生于后藏仰梅。咸丰3年正月初9圆寂，寿72。
The seventh Panchen Lama: Palden Tenpai Nyima Translated as Sheng-jiao-ri. He was born in Yangmei of the Tsang region on April 8 in the 47th year of the Qianlong period and died on January 9 in the third year of the Xianfeng period at an age of 72.
第八世 敦必旺曲 译名圣教自在。咸丰4年生于后藏沱贾。光绪8年7月16日圆寂，寿29。
The eighth Panchen Lama: Tenpai Wangchuk Translated as Sheng-jiao-zi-zai. He was born in Tuojia of the Tsang region in the fourth year of the Xianfeng period and passed away on July 16 in the eighth year of the Guangxu period at an age of 29.
第九世 却吉尼玛 译名法日。光绪9年生于西藏塔布。从第13世达赖出家受戒。民国26年12月1日圆寂于西康玉树，寿55。
The ninth Panchen Lama: Thupten Chökyi Nyima Translated as Fa-ri. He was born in Tabu, Tibet in the ninth year of the Guangxu period. He was ordained from the 13th Dalai Lama. He died on December 1 in the 26th year of the Republic of China at an age of 55.
第四章 结论 Chapter Four Conclusions
Throughout the history of Tibet, except for the periods before the Tang Dynasty, Tibet was closely rated to Buddihism; since Srongtsen Gampo, Buddhism was vigorously promoted in Tibet. When it came to the Yuan Dynasty, the administrative power was given to the temples and the theocracy thus begun. Seventy years later, the regime was handed down to the hands of Bka.hbrgyudpa but the theocracy was still inherited. In the early Qing Dynasty, the fifth Dalai Lama was crowned and governed the entire Tibet. The Sino-Tibetan relationship was established since the marriage of Princess Wencheng. The Qing Dynasty was especially closely related with Shamanism so that each move of Dalai Lama must get the approval of the Qing emperor before its implementation. This is the so-called “whether Han or Tibetan, we are all one family.”
I always want to teach my students the history of Tibet but due to the absence of textbooks, this plan has been set aside for a long time. The common version of Tibetan history just has a few lines of words, so I complied this book based on the history of Tibetan Buddhism and the biographies of generations of Dalai Lamas and Panchen Lamas to benefit my students in the first semester of this year.
Compiled and translated by Sakyamuni Tathagata in Jinyun Mountain at Christmas in the 29th year of the Republic of China.